Race Relations

ALLISON, JAMES. Freeman Field Research Paper, 1995. SC 2696. One folder. Collection guide online. The collection is contained in three file folders. The 199-page manuscript “Mutiny at Freeman Field: Life and Art of James Gould Cozzens,” written by James Allison in 1995, details a World War II racial episode at Freeman Field in Seymour. Against the orders of a white Provost Marshall, African-American Air Force officers attempted to enter the officers’ club. James Gould Cozzens won a Pulitzer Prize for a fictionalized account of the incident when Guard of Honor was published in 1948. Allison provides biographical information on Cozzens, background on African-American participation in the armed forces to that period, and a history of the 477th Bombardment Group and the 332rd Fighter Wing. Utilizing the trial transcripts, Allison follows the outcome of the 1945 court martial that results in the conviction of one of the three black soldiers accused during the April 1945 incident at Freeman Field. The appendix includes a 25-page account of Eugene Jacques Bullard, reputed to be the first and only black combat pilot during World War I. An American, Bullard flew for France. Allison’s biographical sketch is based on P.J. Carisella and James W. Ryan’s 1972 publication The Black Swallow of Death: The Incredible Story of Eugene Jacques Bullard, the World’s First Black Combat Aviator. The sketch closes with a short bibliography and a photocopied photograph of Bullard.

BECKS, MATHEW. Emancipation Record, 1851. SC 1750. One item. Collection guide online. Mathew Becks’s emancipation record was recorded on 18 February 1851 in Rockingham County, Va., prior to his arrival in Indiana. Along with a physical description of Becks, the document states that Becks was emancipated by the last will and testament of St. Clair Kirtley.

BROWNESS, A.G. Letter, 1860. SC 1973. One item. No collection guide available. This letter from A.G. Browness to an unidentified person concerned black men serving in the U.S. military. It refers to the Provincial Act concerning the “regulating of free Negroes.”

CABIN CREEK SOCIETY OF ANTI-SLAVERY FRIENDS. Records,1843-1856. BV 0401a-d and BV 402. Five bound volumes. Collection guide in library. The Dunkirk Society of Friends, later known as Cabin Creek, held its monthly meetings in Randolph County. In addition to the two volumes related to the minutes of the group’s meetings, there are volumes containing birth and marriage records of the members of the organization.

CALLOWAY, THOMAS L. Letter, n.d., 1913. SC 2680. One item. Collection guide online. The collection consists of two items. The first is a piece of business stationary (Charles W. Calloway, Bricklayer and Contractor, Madison). The stationary contains several names and notes regarding Madison history and the Underground Railroad. The second item is a three-page, handwritten and signed letter dated 9 December 1913 to Mrs. Gaylord Crozier in Madison, from her cousin, Thomas L. Calloway (1835-?) in Springfield, Mo. Calloway indicates that he is responding to a letter that he received from Crozier requesting information about their family history. He talks about his grandfather, Jesse Calloway, and mentions Jesse’s two wives and provides the names of their children. He says the Calloways were Quakers and that they originated in Delaware before crossing the mountains to Pennsylvania, then came down the Ohio River to Cincinnati. He talks about the War of 1812, the family’s involvement with the Underground Railroad and social changes that have taken place in the United States (e.g., cost of postage and the efficiency of the mail service). He ends with a note concerning his ill health.

CLANIN, DOUGLAS E., “Anderson and the Negro” (1960). SC 1882. One folder. No collection guide available. The college paper, written by Douglas E. Clanin, includes some sociological data concerning blacks in Anderson from 1940 to 1960. It also includes two interviews about racial conditions in the city with Frank Allis, a director of the Anderson Urban League’s board, and Harold Miller, a postal employee.

DEED OF SALE, 1816. SC 0437. One item. No collection guide available. This Warrick County deed registers the sale of property and slaves owned by Gulielmus Wiggins to Adam Young and Daniel Akins. The sale included three slaves, Hannah, Jefferson and Jackson; four featherbeds; one cart; one horse; and one house and a lot. The deed was witnessed, acknowledged, attested to and recorded in 1816.

FUSSELL, SOLOMON. Letter, 1843. SC 2107. One folder. Collection guide online. Quaker Solomon Fussell, his wife, Milcah Martha, and five of their surviving 11 children arrived at Spring Valley (Fall Creek Township, Madison County) from Chester County, Pa., in 1832. Within a few years, Fussell’s wife and four more of his children died. Fussell married Hannah Lewis (1800-1874) in Milford, Wayne County, on Dec. 1, 1836. They were married at the Friends (Hicksite) Monthly Meeting. Lewis, formerly of Willistown, Chester County, Pa., was the daughter of Joseph and Lydia Lewis. The one-item collection contains a five-page carbon transcript of a letter dated 1 November 1843. The letter was written by Solomon Fussell of Fall Creek Township, Madison County, to an unnamed nephew. It discusses family and local news and crop prices. Of particular note are Fussell’s comments about a mob disturbance in Madison County involving locals and abolitionists including Frederick Douglass.

KENTUCKY RESOLUTION TO ADJACENT NON-SLAVEHOLDING STATES, 1822. SC 1353. One item. No collection guide available. This resolution was sent to the governments of Indiana, Ohio and Illinois. It was an appeal for cooperation and harmony between states regarding runaway slaves. More specifically, Secretary of State Joseph C. Breckinridge, under the auspices of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, requested that the governors of the non-slaveholding states appoint officers to examine laws affecting people of color, slaves and slaveholders.

“MY AFRICAN GRANDFATHER,” Paper (ca. 1942). SC 2677. One folder. Collection guide in library. In a 21-page typewritten paper (“My African Grandfather: Flickinger, Missionary to Africa”), Florence F. Wolff writes about her grandfather, Daniel Flickinger. The paper, read to the [Indianapolis] Woman’s Club during the 1941-1942 club year, was compiled from her grandfather's diaries. The thrust of the manuscript is Flickinger’s work as a missionary in Africa. Wolff indicates that Flickinger made 12 trips to the west coast of Africa to establish medical missions. Wolff details her grandfather’s work as a lecturer for the American Missionary Society and describes an 1863 trip that Flickinger made to Washington, D.C., to appeal to President Abraham Lincoln on behalf of freedmen in Vicksburg, Miss. During the Civil War, he served as a hospital chaplain in Nashville, Tenn., and a post chaplain in Bridgeport, Ala.

PINNELL, GEORGE. Certificate of Sale, 1824. SC 2620. One item. Collection guide online. The slave trade in Kentucky began with the early settlers. Until the 1840s, most slaves in the state were sold locally or regionally. At noon, 20 December 1824, “with a sufficiency of bidders present,” George Pinnell serving as auctioneer, for the estate of John Piner, sold Ned, “a Negro boy.” All of the principles of the transaction (with the exception of Ned), including the decedent, auctioneer, purchaser and witnesses are clearly identified in the 1820 Jefferson County and/or the 1830 Oldham County, Ky., censuses. Formed from Jefferson, Shelby and Henry counties, Oldham County was established in 1823. The collection contains one item. It is a certification of a sale of Ned to Benjamin Allen for $204. Allen was the highest bidder. The sale, witnessed by James Wilson and Elijah Yager, was held at Floydsburg located in Oldham County, Ky.

REGISTER OF NEGROES AND MULATTOES, ca. 1850s. SC 1726. One folder. No collection guide available. An 1852 act empowered the enforcement of Article XIII of the 1851 Indiana constitution, which prohibited the entry of blacks and mulattoes into the state. This act sought the registry of all black and mulatto residents. County clerks maintained registers. This photocopied document contains names and physical descriptions of black residents of Orange County in the 1850s.

ROBBINS, COY. “Miscegenation of Black History” and “Free Persons of Color.” SC 1892. One folder. No collection guide available. Coy Robbins has written several books and articles on Indiana’s African-American history. Retired from Indiana University, he was founder and president of the now defunct organization, Indiana African-American Historical and Genealogical Society, a state chapter of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society. IAAHGS published Ebony Lines (1988-1992), a quarterly newsletter that contains a wealth of genealogical information. During the 19th century, many of Coy Robbins’s forebears emigrated to Hamilton County from North Carolina. Both of these papers are written in a genealogical context pertaining to the Robbins’s family in Indiana.

SOCIETY OF FRIENDS, DEER CREEK MONTHLY MEETING of ANTI-SLAVERY FRIENDS. Women's minute book, 1843-1846. SC 2593. One folder. Collection guide online. In the early 1800s, a large number of Quakers migrated from Virginia and North Carolina to Ohio and Indiana. The dispute over the question of slavery resulted in a separation among Indiana Friends beginning in 1842-1843. On Feb. 7, 1843, an Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends was established in Newport (Wayne County), and some Anti-Slavery Friends established local monthly meetings. The Deer Creek Anti-Slavery Friends began monthly meetings, located approximately four miles south of Marion (Grant County) on Feb. 25, 1843. By 1857, the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends was discontinued, and most members rejoined the Orthodox body. The collection consists of six typewritten pages of notes from the Deer Creek Monthly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends women's minute books (1843-1846). They begin with a quotation from the men's minute books (1843-1855) concerning the establishment of the Deer Creek Anti-Slavery Friends. The notes mention marriages, disownments and activities of the Friends.

SPEARS, GRANT, Jr. “Summary of Remarks about Race and Human Relations” (1949). SC 1625. One folder. No collection guide available. Grant Spears Jr., representing the United Organizations Council (composed of 19 civic, fraternal and religious organizations), gave a speech about race and human relations to the Richmond Junior Chamber of Commerce on Nov. 23, 1949. This paper is a summary of those remarks that focused on discrimination in housing, education and public accommodations.

TAYLOR, JOSEPH. The Negro in America the last citizen, ca. 1958. M 0350, CT 761-770. One box (10 reel-to-reel tapes), 10 cassette tapes. Collection guide online. “The Negro in America: The Last Citizen” was an audiotape series produced by E.W. Richter for WBAA Radio Station, Purdue University. The tapes were recorded circa 1958 under a grant from the Education Television and Radio Center. Richter and Purdue professor of sociology Louis Schneider served as moderators for the series that examined numerous local and national sociological issues, including crime, religion, race relations, and protest and their ramifications. The collection consists of 10 reel-to-reel tapes that have also been converted to cassette tapes. The tapes are approximately 35 minutes each and cover general topics. There are no transcriptions for the tapes. The series moderators interview many sociological professionals, including Joseph Taylor and Lester Branger.

THORNBROUGH, EMMA LOU. “Breaking Racial Barriers to Public Accommodations from the 1940s to 1963.” SC 1971. Two folders. Collection guide online. Emma Lou Thornbrough’s manuscript is an overview of civil rights activities related to public accommodations in Indiana during the middle third of the 20th century. The paper was delivered at the Indiana Historical Society’s 1986 Spring Conference. A response to the paper written by Richard Blackett, Indiana University history professor, is also included.

“UNDERGROUND RAILROAD IN JAY COUNTY.” SC 1626. Two folders. Collection guide in library. The Underground Railroad is a name given to the flight of runaway slaves in the United States who headed (usually northward) toward free states and Canada prior to and during the Civil War. There were various routes, stations (places of refuge), conductors (individuals helping direct flight) and terminology associated with the Underground Railroad. The collection contains a paper written by Daryl R. Yost, provost of Taylor University. The paper, entitled “The Underground Railroad: A Response to an Injustice in American History,” was presented to the Fort Wayne Quest Club on March 7, 1997. It gives a brief history of the Underground Railroad, an explanation of its terms, a description of some of the major national participants, and an overview of the roles of Indiana and Ohio. There are also several color photographs taken by Dwight Mikkelson, former professor at Taylor University. The photographs pertain to a site, purported to have been an Underground Railroad station in Balbec (Jay County), Indiana. The images include a recently rebuilt log cabin, a sign for the city of Balbec, and a stone marker that states that Eliza Harris (from Uncle Tom’s Cabin) rested there in her flight to Canada.